Context: Biochemical markers correlate positively with the development and severity of obesity, depression, and anxiety, and can be modulated by changes in intestinal microbiota composition.
Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of prebiotics or synbiotics on blood biomarkers of obesity, depression, and anxiety (including: ACTH [adrenocorticotropic hormone], cortisol, leptin, ghrelin, TSH [thyroid-stimulating hormone], PTH [parathyroid hormone], vitamin D, BDNF [brain-derived neurotrophic factor], and PCR [polymerase chain reaction]) in individuals with overweight or obesity.
Data sources: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and CENTRAL databases were searched, along with the reference lists of included articles. Authors were contacted for unpublished data.
Study selection: RCT in individuals with overweight or obesity, supplemented with prebiotics or synbiotics, assessing any of the outcomes of interest.
Data extraction: Data were extracted independently by three researchers.
Results: Thirteen studies were identified up to March 7, 2018. Regarding outcomes, 1 study assessed leptin, 4 studies assessed ghrelin, and 10 studies assessed CRP (C-reactive protein). Meta-analysis showed reduction in serum concentrations of ghrelin (-37.17 pg/mL; 95%CI = -69.62, -4.73; P = 0.025) and CRP (SMD [standardized mean difference] = -0.31; 95%CI = -0.58, -0.04; P = 0.027) after supplementation of inulin-type fructans.
Conclusions: Prebiotics may help regulate blood concentrations of ghrelin and CRP in overweight or obese individuals.
Keywords: C-reactive protein; ghrelin; obesity; prebiotics; synbiotics.
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