Application of a Fusion Method for Gas and Particle Air Pollutants between Observational Data and Chemical Transport Model Simulations Over the Contiguous United States for 2005-2014

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep 9;16(18):3314. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16183314.


Accurate spatiotemporal air quality data are critical for use in assessment of regulatory effectiveness and for exposure assessment in health studies. A number of data fusion methods have been developed to combine observational data and chemical transport model (CTM) results. Our approach focuses on preserving the temporal variation provided by observational data while deriving the spatial variation from the community multiscale air quality (CMAQ) simulations, a type of CTM. Here we show the results of fusing regulatory monitoring observational data with 12 km resolution CTM simulation results for 12 pollutants (CO, NOx, NO2, SO2, O3, PM2.5, PM10, NO3-, NH4+, EC, OC, SO42-) over the contiguous United States on a daily basis for a period of ten years (2005-2014). An annual mean regression between the CTM simulations and observational data is used to estimate the average spatial fields, and spatial interpolation of observations normalized by predicted annual average is used to provide the daily variation. Results match the temporal variation well (R2 values ranging from 0.84-0.98 across pollutants) and the spatial variation less well (R2 values 0.42-0.94). Ten-fold cross validation shows normalized root mean square error values of 60% or less and spatiotemporal R2 values of 0.4 or more for all pollutants except SO2.

Keywords: CMAQ; air pollution; data fusion; gas species; particulate species; spatiotemporal pollutant fields.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants / analysis*
  • Air Pollution / analysis
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods*
  • Gases / analysis*
  • Models, Chemical
  • Particulate Matter / analysis*
  • United States


  • Air Pollutants
  • Gases
  • Particulate Matter