Validation of the Patient Empowerment Strategies Questionnaire (PES-Q) in Greek adult patients with chronic insomnia: a pilot study on basic psychometric values

Prim Health Care Res Dev. 2019 Sep 12:20:e130. doi: 10.1017/S1463423619000616.


Aim: The objectives of this study were to validate the Patient Empowerment Strategies Questionnaire (PES-Q) in a Greek sample and to study its psychometric properties in a sample of patients diagnosed with chronic insomnia.

Background: This is a validation of the PES-Q in Attikon General Hospital, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. The questionnaire was administered to 93 subjects aged between 18 and 85 years (mean age ± SD: 54.7 ± 15.2, 28% males).

Methods: The criterion validity of the questionnaire was tested with the use of four specific criteria: the Athens Insomnia Scale, the Pittsburg questionnaire (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index), the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, and the Self-Esteem Scale.

Findings: According to factor analysis results, the structure of the original scale was confirmed by the presence of one main factor in the Greek sample, explaining 40.1% of the variance of PES-Q queries. The questionnaire showed satisfactory reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.887). The results of the current study suggest that the PES-Q may be used as an accurate psychometric instrument for the purposes of chronic insomnia. Future research should examine the psychometric qualities of the PES-Q Greek version in a larger sample.

Keywords: Greek sample; chronic insomnia; patient empowerment; reliability; validation.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Chronic Disease / psychology*
  • Empowerment*
  • Female
  • Greece
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patients / psychology*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Psychometrics*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Translations
  • Young Adult