Development of the Substance Use Motives Measure (SUMM): A comprehensive eight-factor model for alcohol/drugs consumption

Addict Behav Rep. 2019 Jun 28:10:100199. doi: 10.1016/j.abrep.2019.100199. eCollection 2019 Dec.


A wide range of literature (e.g. Cooper, Kuntsche, Levitt, Barber, & Wolf, 2016) supports the assumption that substance use behaviors are driven by different needs, such as socializing with friends or escaping negative mood, that result in diverse consequences. Starting from the four factors identified by Cooper (1994), in the present research we developed the Substance Use Motives Measure (SUMM). SUMM identifies eight motives for alcohol and substance use (Enhancement, Social, Conformity, Anxiety-Coping, Depression-Coping, Boredom-Coping, Self expansion and Performance) that are assumed to be differentially related to specific patterns of substance use. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the psychometric properties of the SUMM in a nonclinical sample. The results support the internal reliability and validity of the measure and suggest that the eight motives may be linked to the use of diverse substances through different reinforcement processes. Additional results show distinct patterns of correlations between the eight motives and personality traits, as an indication of different profiles of alcohol-drug consumers. This flexible assessment measure may have important implications for research, prevention and clinical interventions.

Keywords: Alcohol consumption; Measure; Motives; Substance use; Validation.