Prostaglandin D2 and its cyclopentenone metabolites [cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs)], Δ12prostaglandin J2 and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2, act through 2 GPCRs, d-type prostanoid 1 and the chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on type 2 T-helper cells (Crth2). In addition to its role in allergy and asthma, the role of Crth2 in the resolution of inflammation, to mediate the proresolving functions of endogenous CyPGs, is not well understood. We investigated the regulation of LPS or zymosan-induced inflammatory response by signals from the Crth2 receptor in macrophages that lack Crth2 expression [knockout (KO)]. Increased expression of proinflammatory genes, including Tnf-α, was observed in Crth2 KO cells. Targeting the endogenous biosynthetic pathway of CyPGs with indomethacin or HQL79, which inhibit cyclooxygenases or hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase, respectively, or use of Crth2 antagonists recapitulated the proinflammatory phenotype as in Crth2 KO cells. Ligand-dependent activation of Crth2 by 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin D2 increased Ca2+ influx through store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) accompanied by the up-regulation of stromal interaction molecule 1 and calcium release-activated calcium modulator 1 expression, suggesting that the proresolution effects of CyPG-dependent activation of SOCE could be mediated by Crth2 during inflammation. Interestingly, Crth2 signaling down-regulated the Ca2+-regulated heat stable protein 1 that stabilizes Tnf-α mRNA via the increased expression of microRNA 155 to dampen inflammatory responses triggered through the TNF-α-NF-κB axis. In summary, these studies present a novel regulatory role for Crth2 during inflammatory response in macrophages.-Diwakar, B. T., Yoast, R., Nettleford, S., Qian, F., Lee, T.-J., Berry, S., Huffnagle, I., Rossi, R. M., Trebak, M., Paulson, R. F., Prabhu, K. S. Crth2 receptor signaling down-regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB activation in murine macrophages via changes in intracellular calcium.
Keywords: cAMP; cyclopentenone prostaglandins; protein kinase A; resolution of inflammation; selenium.