Background: There is currently no optimal sampling method for upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract microbiota. We compared biopsies and mucosal swab specimens for microbial sampling from patients with UGI carcinoma.
Methods: A total of 67 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 36 patients with gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (GCA) were recruited in the Linxian Cancer Hospital (Henan, China). Sterile biopsies and swabs were used to collect paired samples from the resection specimens from carcinoma and adjacent normal tissue. Data from 16S rRNA gene sequencing were processed using QIIME2 to evaluate differences in alpha and beta diversity and taxonomic relative abundances between specimen types.
Results: Alpha diversity was not significantly different between swab specimens and biopsies, both for ESCC and GCA. Paired specimens were correlated for both sample types from ESCC (ρ > 0.6, P < 0.001) but not GCA (ρ < 0.4, P > 0.05). For beta diversity, distinct clustering by sampling method was not observed for adjacent normal or tumor tissue from ESCC or GCA. There was a high correlation for weighted UniFrac and Bray-Curtis distance only in ESCC paired specimens (ρ > 0.6, P = 0.001). The 10 dominant bacterial genera were similar between swab and biopsy specimens. However, higher levels of Veillonella (P = 0.0002) and Streptococcus (P = 0.0002) were detected in ESCC adjacent normal and GCA carcinoma swabs, respectively, compared with the biopsies.
Conclusions: Mucosal swab specimens and biopsies could yield similar microbial profiles from ESCC but not GCA. Both can be used to characterize UGI microbiota; one sampling method should be selected for future studies.
Impact: This study provides insight for planning microbiota collections from the UGI tract.
©2019 American Association for Cancer Research.
Microbial characterization of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma from a high-risk region of China.Cancer. 2019 Nov 15;125(22):3993-4002. doi: 10.1002/cncr.32403. Epub 2019 Jul 29. Cancer. 2019. PMID: 31355925
Despite shared susceptibility loci, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma embraces more familial cancer than gastric cardia adenocarcinoma in the Taihang Mountains high-risk region of northern central China.Chin Med J (Engl). 2013 Jan;126(1):55-60. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013. PMID: 23286478
Gastric microbiota features associated with cancer risk factors and clinical outcomes: A pilot study in gastric cardia cancer patients from Shanxi, China.Int J Cancer. 2017 Jul 1;141(1):45-51. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30700. Epub 2017 Apr 3. Int J Cancer. 2017. PMID: 28319273 Free PMC article.
Prognostic value of PLCE1 expression in upper gastrointestinal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014;15(22):9661-6. doi: 10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.22.9661. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014. PMID: 25520085 Review.
Primary adenocarcinomas of lower esophagus, esophagogastric junction and gastric cardia: in special reference to China.World J Gastroenterol. 2003 Jun;9(6):1156-64. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v9.i6.1156. World J Gastroenterol. 2003. PMID: 12800215 Free PMC article. Review.
Cited by 1 article
Exploring Esophageal Microbiomes in Esophageal Diseases: A Systematic Review.J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2020 Apr 30;26(2):171-179. doi: 10.5056/jnm19240. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2020. PMID: 32235026 Free PMC article. Review.