In this study,we explored the effect of adiposity as measured by BMI on lung function in 72 asthmatic school children (5-12 years) using baseline data from the Mediterranean diet enriched with fatty fish intervention study. Bronchial function was assessed using spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). BMI categories were classified as normal and overweight/obese based on International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Weak correlations were observed between BMI and FVC (p = 0.013) and FEV1 (p = 0.026). Median FeNO was lower in the overweight/obese as compared to normal weight group (p = 0.027). Linear regression showed an increment in FEF25-75% in the overweight/obese group as compared to normal weight after controlling for confounders namely age, height, sex, regular physical activity, medication and KIDMED score (p = 0.043; β = 11.65 units, 95% CI 0.36-22.94), although with no effect on FeNO. In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that excess body weight could impact pulmonary dynamics in childhood asthma.
Keywords: Asthma; Body mass index; Children; Lung function; Overweight; Spirometry.