Impact of geographical factors on the spread of animal brucellosis in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2019 Dec;67:101349. doi: 10.1016/j.cimid.2019.101349. Epub 2019 Sep 7.

Abstract

In Latin and Central America and in most Asian countries, brucellosis remains an insufficiently studied disease. This study aims to determine the national and regional incidence of brucellosis among cattle (cows) and small ruminants (sheep, goats) in the Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as to identify the effect of climatic and geographical factors on the incidence rates. Thematic maps were created in an open geographic information system QGIS version 2.8. in order to identify the natural and socio-economic factors that influence the spread of the disease overlay method was used. Local cluster analysis was used in order to identify additional causes of the disease. Findings show the following values of Pearson correlation between the overall population and the number of animals infected: 0.68 for cows, p ≤ 0.005, and 0.56 for sheep and goats, p ≤ 0.03. Thus, the larger the heard in a given area, the greater likelihood of having brucellosis. Data processing reveals that Kazakhstan has almost twice as many regions good for cattle breeding as regions that are good for the small ruminants farming. The correlation variables for cattle and small ruminants are approximately the same. On the basis of the performed research the author proposes to amend the accepted methodology of epidemiology surveillance by the methods based on spatial (geographical) analysis. It is also proposed to adjust the process of breeding cattle and small ruminants considering the additional health recommendations that take into account the geographical aspects of the spread of the disease.

Keywords: Brucellosis; Cattle; Epizootiology; Geographic information system; Infection.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brucellosis / epidemiology*
  • Brucellosis / veterinary*
  • Cattle
  • Cattle Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cattle Diseases / microbiology
  • Economics
  • Geography
  • Goat Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Goat Diseases / microbiology
  • Goats
  • Incidence
  • Kazakhstan / epidemiology
  • Sheep
  • Sheep Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Sheep Diseases / microbiology
  • Spatial Analysis