Hyperinsulinemia: An Early Indicator of Metabolic Dysfunction

J Endocr Soc. 2019 Jul 24;3(9):1727-1747. doi: 10.1210/js.2019-00065. eCollection 2019 Sep 1.


Hyperinsulinemia is strongly associated with type 2 diabetes. Racial and ethnic minority populations are disproportionately affected by diabetes and obesity-related complications. This mini-review provides an overview of the genetic and environmental factors associated with hyperinsulinemia with a focus on racial and ethnic differences and its metabolic consequences. The data used in this narrative review were collected through research in PubMed and reference review of relevant retrieved articles. Insulin secretion and clearance are regulated processes that influence the development and progression of hyperinsulinemia. Environmental, genetic, and dietary factors are associated with hyperinsulinemia. Certain pharmacotherapies for obesity and bariatric surgery are effective at mitigating hyperinsulinemia and are associated with improved metabolic health. Hyperinsulinemia is associated with many environmental and genetic factors that interact with a wide network of hormones. Recent studies have advanced our understanding of the factors affecting insulin secretion and clearance. Further basic and translational work on hyperinsulinemia may allow for earlier and more personalized treatments for obesity and metabolic diseases.

Keywords: diabetes; hyperinsulinemia; hypersecretion; insulin clearance.

Publication types

  • Review