Clinical indications for image-guided interventional procedures in the musculoskeletal system: a Delphi-based consensus paper from the European Society of Musculoskeletal Radiology (ESSR)-part I, shoulder

Eur Radiol. 2020 Feb;30(2):903-913. doi: 10.1007/s00330-019-06419-x. Epub 2019 Sep 16.


Background: Image-guided interventional procedures around the shoulder are commonly performed in clinical practice, although evidence regarding their effectiveness is scarce. We report the results of a Delphi method review of evidence on literature published on image-guided interventional procedures around the shoulder with a list of clinical indications.

Methods: Forty-five experts in image-guided musculoskeletal procedures from the ESSR participated in a consensus study using the Delphic method. Peer-reviewed papers regarding interventional procedures around the shoulder up to September 2018 were scored according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine levels of evidence. Statements on clinical indications were constructed. Consensus was considered as strong if more than 95% of experts agreed and as broad if more than 80% agreed.

Results: A total of 20 statements were drafted, and 5 reached the highest level of evidence. There were 10 statements about tendon procedures, 6 about intra-articular procedures, and 4 about intrabursal injections. Strong consensus was obtained in 16 of them (80%), while 4 received broad consensus (20%).

Conclusions: Literature evidence on image-guided interventional procedures around the shoulder is limited. A strong consensus has been reached for 80% of statements. The ESSR recommends further research to potentially influence treatment options, patient outcomes, and social impact.

Key points: • Expert consensus produced a list of 20 evidence-based statements on clinical indications of image-guided interventional procedures around the shoulder. • The highest level of evidence was reached for five statements. • Strong consensus was obtained for 16 statements (80%), while 4 received broad consensus (20%).

Keywords: Injections; Interventional radiology; Platelet-rich plasma; Shoulder; Ultrasonography.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • Delphi Technique
  • Humans
  • Musculoskeletal System / surgery
  • Orthopedic Procedures / methods*
  • Radiography
  • Radiology
  • Shoulder / surgery*
  • Societies, Medical
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted / methods*