Objective: Data on associations between facial aging and smoking or alcohol consumption are generally derived from small studies, and therefore, vary. The aim of this large multinational study was to determine more accurately which clinical signs of skin- and volume-related facial aging are associated with tobacco and alcohol use in women. Design: This was a subanalysis of a global, cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of self-reported facial aging. Participants: Women aged 18 to 75 years old (n=3,267) from the United States, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom who described themselves as white, Asian, black, or Hispanic were included. Measurements: Using a mirror, participants determined their own aging severity on photonumeric rating scales for 11 facial characteristics. Linear regressions were used to assess associations between each feature's severity and smoking status (never vs. current and former smoker); smoking pack years (0 versus 1-10, 11-20, and >20 years); alcohol use (none vs. moderate and heavy); and alcoholic beverage type, after controlling for body mass index, country, age, and race. Results: Smoking was associated with an increased severity of forehead, crow's feet, and glabellar lines; under-eye puffiness; tear-trough hollowing; nasolabial folds; oral commissures; perioral lines; and reduced lip fullness (p≤0.025) but not midface volume loss or visible blood vessels. Heavy alcohol use (≥8 drinks/week) was associated with increased upper facial lines, under-eye puffiness, oral commissures, midface volume loss, and blood vessels (p≤0.042). Conclusion: Smoking and alcohol consumption significantly but differentially impact skin and volume-related facial aging.
Keywords: Facial lines; facial skin aging; impact of alcohol consumption; impact of tobacco use; volume-related aging.