Prevalence and Risk Factors of Myopia in Spain

J Ophthalmol. 2019 Aug 18;2019:3419576. doi: 10.1155/2019/3419576. eCollection 2019.

Abstract

Objective: To analyse the prevalence of myopia among a sample of more than 6000 children in Spain as well as to determine the impact of risk factors in its progression.

Methodology: A total of 6,152 children aged from 5 to 7 were examined. The participants underwent an eye examination that included visual acuity, refraction without cycloplegia, and tests of accommodative and binocular function. In addition, a questionnaire regarding their lifestyle, family history, and geographical data was carried out. Finally, data were analysed using the SPSS version 25 program.

Results: The prevalence of myopia in the sample of children studied has increased from 17% in 2016 to 20% in 2017. Likewise, the number of children with high myopia has also increased, from 1.7% in 2016 to 3.6% in 2017. 43.3% of the participants spent more than 3 hours a day doing near activities, and 48.9% of this group spent more than 50% of this time using electronic devices. In addition, only 9.7% spent more than 2.5 hours outdoors each day.

Conclusion: Myopia prevalence appears to be increasing in Spain. Lifestyle factors appear to be increasing the risk of myopia.