Quercetin Inhibits Inflammatory Response Induced by LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis in Human Gingival Fibroblasts via Suppressing NF- κ B Signaling Pathway

Biomed Res Int. 2019 Aug 20;2019:6282635. doi: 10.1155/2019/6282635. eCollection 2019.


Quercetin, a natural flavonol existing in many food resources, has been reported to be an effective antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agent for restricting the inflammation in periodontitis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of quercetin on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs). HGFs were pretreated with quercetin prior to LPS stimulation. Cell viability was evaluated by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), along with chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8), were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IκBα, p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), liver X receptor α (LXRα), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) were measured by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The protein levels of IκBα, p-IκBα, p65, p-p65, PPAR-γ, LXRα, and TLR4 were characterized by Western blotting. Our results demonstrated that quercetin inhibited the LPS-induced production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. It also suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation mediated by TLR4. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of quercetin were reversed by the PPAR-γ antagonist of GW9662. In conclusion, these results suggested that quercetin attenuated the production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in P. gingivalis LPS-treated HGFs by activating PPAR-γ which subsequently suppressed the activation of NF-κB.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents / pharmacology
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects*
  • Fibroblasts / metabolism
  • Gingiva / drug effects*
  • Gingiva / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Periodontitis / drug therapy
  • Periodontitis / metabolism
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis / drug effects*
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis / metabolism
  • Quercetin / pharmacology*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Cytokines
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • NF-kappa B
  • Quercetin