Orofacial functions and quality of life in children with unilateral cleft lip and palate

Braz Oral Res. 2019 Sep 9:33:e0061. doi: 10.1590/1807-3107bor-2019.vol33.0061.


This study aimed to evaluate the orofacial functions and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). This case-control study included patients with UCLP matched by sex and age with controls (children without UCLP), resulting in the inclusion of a total of 108 eight- to ten-year-old children. Orofacial functions and OHRQoL were evaluated using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) and the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ 8-1 0 ), respectively. Data normality was assessed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Differences and correlations in NOT-S and CPQ 8-1 0 scores between and within the groups were evaluated using Mann-Whitney and Spearman´s correlation tests, respectively. The distribution of NOT-S and global ratings of CPQ 8-1 0 for each group were assessed by Chi-squared/Fisher's Exact tests. The UCLP group had a higher NOT-S total and examination scores than the controls. Dysfunctions related to breathing, facial symmetry/expression, and speech were more frequent in the UCLP patients than in the controls. The UCLP group had higher scores on the social well-being domain than the controls. There was a significant difference between the groups in their ratings in regards to the extent to which their oral condition affected their life overall, with controls perceiving it as somewhat better than patients. In both groups, NOT-S total and interview scores were positively correlated with CPQ 8-1 0 total and domain scores. The NOT-S examination score was only significantly correlated with social domain scores in the control group. The presence of UCLP was associated with clinical signs of orofacial dysfunctions related to breathing, facial symmetry/expression, and speech. Children with UCLP reported more orofacial dysfunctions and negative impacts on social well-being than controls.

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Cleft Lip / physiopathology*
  • Cleft Palate / physiopathology*
  • Deglutition / physiology
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Face / physiopathology*
  • Facial Asymmetry / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mastication / physiology
  • Mouth / physiopathology*
  • Quality of Life*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Surveys and Questionnaires