4 Ds in health research-working together toward rapid precision medicine

EMBO Mol Med. 2019 Nov 7;11(11):e10917. doi: 10.15252/emmm.201910917. Epub 2019 Sep 18.


Patient therapy is based mainly on a combination of diagnosis, suitable monitoring or support devices and drug treatment and is usually employed for a pre-existing disease condition. Therapy remains predominantly symptom-based, although it is increasingly clear that individual treatment is possible and beneficial. However, reasonable precision medicine can only be realized with the coordinated use of diagnostics, devices and drugs in combination with extensive databases (4Ds), an approach that has not yet found sufficient implementation. The practical combination of 4Ds in health care is progressing, but several obstacles still hamper their extended use in precision medicine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biomedical Research / methods*
  • Biomedical Research / trends*
  • Databases, Factual
  • Diagnostic Tests, Routine / methods
  • Disease Management*
  • Drug Discovery
  • Equipment and Supplies
  • Humans
  • Precision Medicine / methods*
  • Precision Medicine / trends*