Five Emerging Neuroinvasive Arboviral Diseases: Cache Valley, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and Usutu

Semin Neurol. 2019 Aug;39(4):419-427. doi: 10.1055/s-0039-1687839. Epub 2019 Sep 18.


There are many arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) capable of neuroinvasion, with West Nile virus being one of the most well known. In this review, we highlight five rarer emerging or reemerging arboviruses capable of neuroinvasion: Cache Valley, eastern equine encephalitis, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, and Usutu viruses. Cache Valley and Jamestown Canyon viruses likely circulate throughout most of North America, while eastern equine encephalitis and Powassan viruses typically circulate in the eastern half. Usutu virus is not currently circulating in North America, but has the potential to be introduced in the future given similar climate, vectors, and host species to Europe (where it has been circulating). Health care providers should contact their state or local health departments with any questions regarding arboviral disease surveillance, diagnosis, treatment, or prevention. To prevent neuroinvasive arboviral diseases, use of insect repellent and other mosquito and tick bite prevention strategies are key.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arbovirus Infections / diagnosis
  • Arbovirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Arbovirus Infections / therapy
  • Bunyamwera virus / isolation & purification
  • Bunyaviridae Infections / diagnosis
  • Bunyaviridae Infections / epidemiology*
  • Bunyaviridae Infections / therapy
  • Encephalitis Virus, California / isolation & purification
  • Encephalitis, California / diagnosis
  • Encephalitis, California / epidemiology*
  • Encephalitis, California / therapy
  • Encephalitis, Tick-Borne / diagnosis
  • Encephalitis, Tick-Borne / epidemiology*
  • Encephalitis, Tick-Borne / therapy
  • Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine / diagnosis
  • Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine / epidemiology*
  • Encephalomyelitis, Eastern Equine / therapy
  • Flavivirus / isolation & purification
  • Flavivirus Infections / diagnosis
  • Flavivirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Flavivirus Infections / therapy
  • Humans

Supplementary concepts

  • Usutu virus