Long-distance RNA transport enables local protein synthesis at metabolically-active sites distant from the nucleus. This process ensures an appropriate spatial organization of proteins, vital to polarized cells such as neurons. Here, we present a mechanism for RNA transport in which RNA granules "hitchhike" on moving lysosomes. In vitro biophysical modeling, live-cell microscopy, and unbiased proximity labeling proteomics reveal that annexin A11 (ANXA11), an RNA granule-associated phosphoinositide-binding protein, acts as a molecular tether between RNA granules and lysosomes. ANXA11 possesses an N-terminal low complexity domain, facilitating its phase separation into membraneless RNA granules, and a C-terminal membrane binding domain, enabling interactions with lysosomes. RNA granule transport requires ANXA11, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated mutations in ANXA11 impair RNA granule transport by disrupting their interactions with lysosomes. Thus, ANXA11 mediates neuronal RNA transport by tethering RNA granules to actively-transported lysosomes, performing a critical cellular function that is disrupted in ALS.
Keywords: ANXA11; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Local translation; Lysosome; Neurodegeneration; Neuron; Organelles contact; Phase separation; RNA granule; RNA transport.
Published by Elsevier Inc.