Background: Although prehospital advanced airway management (AAM) (i.e., endotracheal intubation [ETI] and insertion of supraglottic airways [SGA]) has been performed for paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), the effect of AAM has not been fully studied. We evaluated the association between prehospital AAM for paediatric OHCA and patient outcomes.
Methods: We conducted an observational cohort study, using the All-Japan Utstein Registry between 2014 and 2016. We included paediatric patients (age <18 years) with OHCA. We calculated time-dependent propensity score at each minute after initiation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by EMS providers, using a Fine-Gray regression model. We sequentially matched patients who received AAM during cardiac arrest to patients at risk of receiving AAM within the same minute (risk-set matching). The primary outcome was 1-month survival. Secondary outcome was 1-month survival with favourable functional status, defined as Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 or 2.
Results: We analysed 3801 paediatric patients with OHCA. 481 patients (12.7%) received AAM and 3320 (87.3%) did not. Among the 3801 analysed patients, 912 patients underwent risk-set matching. In the matched cohort, AAM was not associated with 1-month survival (AAM: 52/456 [11.4%] vs. no AAM: 44/456 [9.6%]; risk ratio [RR], 1.15 [95% CI, 0.76-1.73]; risk difference [RD], 1.5% [-3.0 to 6.1%]) or favourable functional status (AAM: 9/456 [2.0%] vs. no AAM: 10/456 [2.2%]; RR, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.26-1.79]; RD, -0.8% [-2.9 to 1.3%]).
Conclusion: Among paediatric patients with OHCA, we found that prehospital AAM was not associated with 1-month survival or favourable functional status.
Keywords: Advanced airway management; Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest; Paediatrics; Risk-set matching; Time-dependent propensity score analysis.
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