Hsian-tsao (Platostoma palustre Blume) is a traditional Taiwanese food. It is admired by many consumers, especially in summer, because of its aroma and taste. This study reports the analysis of the volatile components present in eight varieties of Hsian-tsao using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). HS-SPME is a non-heating method, and the results show relatively true values of the samples during flavor isolation. However, it is a kind of headspace analysis that has the disadvantage of a lower detection ability to relatively higher molecular weight compounds; also, the data are not quantitative, but instead are used for comparison. The SDE method uses distillation 2 h for flavor isolation; therefore, it quantitatively identifies more volatile compounds in the samples while the samples withstand heating. Both methods were used in this study to investigate information about the samples. The results showed that Nongshi No. 1 had the highest total quantity of volatile components using HS-SPME, whereas SDE indicated that Taoyuan Mesona 1301 (TYM1301) had the highest volatile concentration. Using the two extraction methods, 120 volatile components were identified. Fifty-six volatile components were identified using HS-SPME, and the main volatile compounds were α-pinene, β-pinene, and limonene. A total of 108 volatile components were identified using SDE, and the main volatile compounds were α-bisabolol, β-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide. Compared with SDE, HS-SPME sampling extracted a significantly higher amount of monoterpenes and had a poorer detection of less volatile compounds, such as sesquiterpenes, terpene alcohols, and terpene oxide.
Keywords: Hsian-tsao; Platostoma palustre (Blume); headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME); simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE); volatile components.