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Review
, 20 (18)

Combinatorial Epigenetics Impact of Polyphenols and Phytochemicals in Cancer Prevention and Therapy

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Review

Combinatorial Epigenetics Impact of Polyphenols and Phytochemicals in Cancer Prevention and Therapy

Itika Arora et al. Int J Mol Sci.

Abstract

Polyphenols are potent micronutrients that can be found in large quantities in various food sources and spices. These compounds, also known as phenolics due to their phenolic structure, play a vital nutrient-based role in the prevention of various diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, liver disease, and cancers. However, the function of polyphenols in disease prevention and therapy depends on their dietary consumption and biological properties. According to American Cancer Society statistics, there will be an expected rise of 23.6 million new cancer cases by 2030. Due to the severity of the increased risk, it is important to evaluate various preventive measures associated with cancer. Relatively recently, numerous studies have indicated that various dietary polyphenols and phytochemicals possess properties of modifying epigenetic mechanisms that modulate gene expression resulting in regulation of cancer. These polyphenols and phytochemicals, when administrated in a dose-dependent and combinatorial-based manner, can have an enhanced effect on epigenetic changes, which play a crucial role in cancer prevention and therapy. Hence, this review will focus on the mechanisms of combined polyphenols and phytochemicals that can impact various epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications as well as regulation of non-coding miRNAs expression for treatment and prevention of various types of cancer.

Keywords: DNA methylation; cancer; epigenetics; histone modifications; microRNA; polyphenols.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Health benefits effect of dietary polyphenols. Polyphenols are largely found in fruits, vegetables, spices, and beverages. Most of these compounds are involved in protection against the development of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, diabetes, osteoporosis, and liver diseases.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Different classification of polyphenols and their chemical structures. Flavonoids are subdivided into flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, flavones, isoflavones, and anthocyanidins.

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