Hantaviruses are widespread zoonotic pathogens found around the globe. Depending on their geographical location, hantaviruses can cause two human syndromes, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HPS and HFRS have many commonalities amongst which excessive activation of immune cells is a prominent feature. Hantaviruses replicate in endothelial cells (ECs), the major battlefield of hantavirus-induced pathogenesis, without causing cytopathic effects. This indicates that a misdirected response of human immune cells to hantaviruses is causing damage. As dendritic cells (DCs) orchestrate antiviral immune responses, they are in the focus of research analysing hantavirus-induced immunopathogenesis. In this review, we discuss the interplay between hantaviruses and DCs and the immunological consequences thereof.
Keywords: antiviral immune responses; dendritic cells; hantaviruses; virus-induced immunopathogenesis.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors declare no conflicts of interest
[Immunopathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome].Acta Med Croatica. 2003;57(5):407-14. Acta Med Croatica. 2003. PMID: 15011469 Review. Croatian.
Pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses differentially regulate endothelial cell responses.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 15;99(21):13837-42. doi: 10.1073/pnas.192298899. Epub 2002 Oct 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002. PMID: 12368479 Free PMC article.
Innate and adaptive immune responses against human Puumala virus infection: immunopathogenesis and suggestions for novel treatment strategies for severe hantavirus-associated syndromes.J Intern Med. 2019 May;285(5):510-523. doi: 10.1111/joim.12876. Epub 2019 Feb 17. J Intern Med. 2019. PMID: 30663801 Free PMC article.
Cellular entry of hantaviruses which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is mediated by beta3 integrins.J Virol. 1999 May;73(5):3951-9. J Virol. 1999. PMID: 10196290 Free PMC article.
New ecological aspects of hantavirus infection: a change of a paradigm and a challenge of prevention--a review.Virus Genes. 2005 Mar;30(2):157-80. doi: 10.1007/s11262-004-5625-2. Virus Genes. 2005. PMID: 15744574 Review.