In Vitro Modeling of the Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia Using Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Copy Number Variations of PCDH1 5 and RELN

eNeuro. 2019 Oct 17;6(5):ENEURO.0403-18.2019. doi: 10.1523/ENEURO.0403-18.2019. Print 2019 Sep/Oct.


Bipolar disorder (BP) and schizophrenia (SCZ) are major psychiatric disorders, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the complicated pathologies of these disorders remain unclear. It is difficult to establish adequate in vitro models for pathological analysis because of the heterogeneity of these disorders. In the present study, to recapitulate the pathologies of these disorders in vitro, we established in vitro models by differentiating mature neurons from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from BP and SCZ patient with contributive copy number variations, as follows: two BP patients with PCDH15 deletion and one SCZ patient with RELN deletion. Glutamatergic neurons and GABAergic neurons were induced from hiPSCs under optimized conditions. Both types of induced neurons from both hiPSCs exhibited similar phenotypes of MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein 2)-positive dendrite shortening and decreasing synapse numbers. Additionally, we analyzed isogenic PCDH15- or RELN-deleted cells. The dendrite and synapse phenotypes of isogenic neurons were partially similar to those of patient-derived neurons. These results suggest that the observed phenotypes are general phenotypes of psychiatric disorders, and our in vitro models using hiPSC-based technology may be suitable for analysis of the pathologies of psychiatric disorders.

Keywords: GABAergic neurons; bipolar disorder; copy number variations; glutamatergic neurons; induced pluripotent stem cells; schizophrenia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bipolar Disorder / genetics
  • Bipolar Disorder / pathology*
  • Cadherin Related Proteins
  • Cadherins / genetics
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal / genetics
  • Cell Culture Techniques / methods*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • DNA Copy Number Variations
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins / genetics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Middle Aged
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics
  • Neurons / pathology*
  • Pluripotent Stem Cells*
  • Reelin Protein
  • Schizophrenia / genetics
  • Schizophrenia / pathology*
  • Serine Endopeptidases / genetics


  • CDHR15, human
  • Cadherin Related Proteins
  • Cadherins
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal
  • Extracellular Matrix Proteins
  • Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • Reelin Protein
  • RELN protein, human
  • Serine Endopeptidases