Intraperitoneal mitomycin C improves survival compared to cytoreductive surgery alone in an experimental model of high-grade pseudomyxoma peritonei

Clin Exp Metastasis. 2019 Dec;36(6):511-518. doi: 10.1007/s10585-019-09991-0. Epub 2019 Sep 20.


Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare cancer commonly originating from appendiceal neoplasms that presents with mucinous tumor spread in the peritoneal cavity. Patients with PMP are treated with curative intent by cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). The value of adding HIPEC to CRS has not been proven in randomized trials, and the objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intraperitoneal mitomycin C (MMC) and regional hyperthermia as components of this complex treatment. Xenograft tissue established from a patient with histologically high-grade PMP with signet ring cell differentiation was implanted intraperitoneally in 65 athymic nude male rats and the animals were stratified into three treatment groups; the cytoreductive surgery group (CRSG, CRS only), the normothermic group (NG, CRS and intraperitoneal chemotherapy perfusion (IPEC) with MMC at 35 ºC), and the hyperthermic group (HG, CRS and IPEC at 41 ºC). The main endpoints were survival and tumor weight at autopsy. Adequate imitation of the clinical setting and treatment approach was achieved. The median survival was 31 days in the CRSG, 60 days in NG and 67 days in HG. The median tumor weights at autopsy were 34 g in CRSG, 23 g NG and 20 g in HG. In conclusion, the addition of IPEC with MMC after CRS doubled the survival time and reduced tumor growth compared to CRS alone. Adding regional hyperthermia resulted in a modest improvement of treatment outcome.

Keywords: Hyperthermia; Intraperitoneal chemotherapy; Mitomycin C; Pseudomyxoma peritonei; Rat model.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality*
  • Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology
  • Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / therapy
  • Cytoreduction Surgical Procedures / mortality*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / mortality*
  • Injections, Intraperitoneal
  • Male
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mitomycin / administration & dosage*
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / mortality*
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / pathology
  • Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / therapy
  • Rats, Nude
  • Survival Rate
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


  • Antibiotics, Antineoplastic
  • Mitomycin