Background: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a health problem that is increasing around the world.
Introduction: Prevention of GDM, rather than treatment, could have several benefits in terms of both health and economic cost. Even a slight reduction in maternal glucose in non-diabetic women, particularly in women at high risk for GDM, may have significant benefits for pregnancy results and the future health of off-springs. Probiotics are a relatively new intervention, which are assessed by mothers' metabolism, and can reduce blood sugar levels, prevent gestational diabetes and reduce the maternal and fetal complications resulting from it. The aim of this study was to review the studies on the prevention of gestational diabetes and assess the potential beneficial effects of probiotics on gestational diabetes and their possible mechanism of action.
Methods: Articles compiled through clinical trials indexed in PubMed, Science Direct, Cochran, and Medlib between 2000 and 2017, with the keywords probiotics, prevention, and gestational diabetes mellitus were selected.
Results: Considering the potential of probiotics in the modulation of gut microbiota, naturalization increases intestinal permeability, regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators' secretion and thereby controlling local and systemic inflammation results in decreasing intestinal permeability, enhancing the immune system. It likely has the ability to prevent or control diabetes during pregnancy although confirmatory studies are still needed.
Conclusion: Experimental and clinical evidence support the supposition that the modulation of the gut microbiota via probiotic microorganisms could be effective in the prevention of gestational diabetes mellitus.
Keywords: GDM; Probiotics; gestational diabetes mellitus; gut microbiota; hyperglycemia; pregnancy..
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