Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 7 (10)

Compliance and Treatment Outcomes of Various Regimens for Trichomoniasis in Trinidad and Tobago


Compliance and Treatment Outcomes of Various Regimens for Trichomoniasis in Trinidad and Tobago

Aruna Kumari Divakaruni et al. Med Sci (Basel).


Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) globally and yet is not a reportable disease. Trichomonas vaginalis is an important source of reproductive morbidity and may increase risk of acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Control Disease Center (CDC) recommend various regimens of nitroimidazole s for treatment. The common nitroimidazoles used for trichomoniasis are metronidazole and tinidazole, which vary in their cost, efficacy, and side effect profile. It is relevant to study these factors for better management of the patients. This study aimed to compare and study the efficacy, compliance of various treatment regimens, their outcomes, and side-effects for trichomoniasis, among STI clinic attendees in Trinidad. A clinical trial study was designed, and after obtaining the informed consent, a routine clinical examination was conducted and the swabs for trichomoniasis tests were collected for diagnosis from the 692 participants. Out of 692 participants, 82 patients with positive diagnosis of Trichomonas infection were treated according to the patient's choice, using different drug regimens. Compliance to treatment, side effects, and outcome were evaluated. The prevalence of trichomoniasis in the population attending our STI clinic is 11.9% and prevalence of HIV is 9%. Of the total 82 participants for the treatment, 80% were females; nearly 90% of the patients belonged to age group 15-45 years, and over 60% were below 30 years. Among those diagnosed for Trichomonas vaginalis, 14.6% had coexistent HIV infection. The compliance with respect to single dose treatment was significantly better than the long-duration oral regimen and has a significant relation with side effects of the treatment. The outcome is generally better and comparable and shows no significant difference between different treatment regimens used in the study. Metronidazole and tinidazole are commonly used drugs in various regimens. Compliance is better with those treated with tinidazole and metronidazole single dose than with other groups. Outcome is comparable between these regimens, especially when combined with other important factors like abstinence and treatment of the partners. The treatment regimens mainly differed in the compliance side effects profile and duration of therapy, which suggests that to improve the compliance of the drugs with fewer side effects, short course regimen would be a preferred choice.

Keywords: HIV; STIs; Trichomonas vaginalis; compliance; cost-effectiveness; treatment.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Similar articles

See all similar articles


    1. WHO Fact sheet on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) [(accessed on 10 January 2018)];2016 Aug; Available online:
    1. Bickley L.S., Krisher K.K., Punsalang A., Jr., Trupei M.A., Reichman R.C., Menegus M.A. Comparison of direct fluorescent antibody, acridine orange, wet mount, and culture for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis in women attending a public sexually transmitted diseases clinic. Sex Transm. Dis. 1989;16:127–131. doi: 10.1097/00007435-198907000-00002. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Schmid G. Trichomoniasis Treatment in Women: RHL Commentary. The WHO Reproductive Health Library; Geneva, Switzertland: 2008.
    1. Sangaré L., Mandaliya K., Kiarie J., Jaoko W., McClelland R.S., Hassan W.M., Lavreys L., Ndinya-Achola J., Baeten J.M. Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis Increases the Risk of HIV-1 Acquisition. J. Infect. Dis. 2007;195:698–702. - PubMed
    1. Van Der Pol B., Kwok C., Pierre-Louis B., Rinaldi A., Salata R.A., Chen P.-L., Van De Wijgert J., Mmiro F., Mugerwa R., Chipato T., et al. Trichomonas vaginalisInfection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquisition in African Women. J. Infect. Dis. 2008;197:548–554. doi: 10.1086/526496. - DOI - PubMed