Workaholism, Intensive Smartphone Use, and the Sleep-Wake Cycle: A Multiple Mediation Analysis

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep 20;16(19):3517. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16193517.


Recent contributions have reported sleep disorders as one of the health impairment outcomes of workaholism. A possible factor affecting the sleep-wake cycle might be the intensive use of smartphones. The current study aimed to explore the role of intensive smartphone use in the relationship between workaholism and the sleep-wake cycle. Two serial multiple mediation models were tested on a sample of 418 employees, who filled self-report questionnaires measuring workaholism, use of smartphones, sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, using conditional process analysis for testing direct and indirect effects. Results supported our hypotheses regarding two serial multiple mediation models-that intensive smartphone use and poor sleep quality mediated the relationship between workaholism and daytime sleepiness, and that smartphone use and daytime sleepiness mediated the relationship between workaholism and poor quality of sleep. Although the use of a cross-sectional design and the snowball technique for collecting data can be considered as possible limitations, the current study is one of the first to document the potential detrimental role of the intensive smartphone use on the workaholism-sleep disorders relationship.

Keywords: intensive smartphone use; sleep-wake cycle; workaholism.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Behavior, Addictive / complications*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Self Report
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
  • Sleep Wake Disorders / etiology*
  • Smartphone*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Work / psychology*
  • Young Adult