With the increasing use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), the incidence of lower gastrointestinal (GI) complications is expected to increase. However, unlike upper GI complications, the burden, pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of NSAID-associated lower GI complications remain unclear. To date, no cost-effective and safe protective agent has been developed that can completely prevent or treat NSAID-related lower GI injuries. Selective COX-2 inhibitors, misoprostol, intestinal microbiota modulation, and some mucoprotective agents have been reported to show protective effects on NSAID-induced lower GI injuries. This review aims to provide an overview of the current evidence on the prevention of NSAID-related lower GI injuries.
Keywords: Anti-inflammatory agents, non-steroidal; Lower gastrointestinal bleeding; Protective agents.