S-palmitoylation is a reversible posttranslational modification that plays an important role in regulating protein localization, trafficking, and stability. Recent studies have shown that some proteins undergo extremely rapid palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycles after cellular stimulation supporting a direct signaling role for this posttranslational modification. Here, we investigated whether β-adrenergic stimulation of cardiomyocytes led to stimulus-dependent palmitoylation of downstream signaling proteins. We found that β-adrenergic stimulation led to rapidly increased Gαs and Gαi palmitoylation. The kinetics of palmitoylation was temporally consistent with the downstream production of cAMP and contractile responses. We identified the plasma membrane-localized palmitoyl acyltransferase DHHC5 as an important mediator of the stimulus-dependent palmitoylation in cardiomyocytes. Knockdown of DHHC5 showed that this enzyme is necessary for palmitoylation of Gαs, Gαi, and functional responses downstream of β-adrenergic stimulation. A palmitoylation assay with purified components revealed that Gαs and Gαi are direct substrates of DHHC5. Finally, we provided evidence that the C-terminal tail of DHHC5 can be palmitoylated in response to stimulation and such modification is important for its dynamic localization and function in the plasma membrane. Our results reveal that DHHC5 is a central regulator of signaling downstream of β-adrenergic receptors in cardiomyocytes.
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