Structure optimization of a new class of PPARγ antagonists

Bioorg Med Chem. 2019 Nov 1;27(21):115082. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2019.115082. Epub 2019 Aug 27.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) modulators have found wide application for the treatment of cancers, metabolic disorders and inflammatory diseases. Contrary to PPARγ agonists, PPARγ antagonists have been much less studied and although they have shown immunomodulatory effects, there is still no therapeutically useful PPARγ antagonist on the market. In contrast to non-competitive, irreversible inhibition caused by 2-chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide (GW9662), the recently described (E)-2-(5-((4-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)quinolin-6-yl)methoxy)-2-((4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)oxy)-benzylidene)-hexanoic acid (MTTB, T-10017) is a promising prototype for a new class of PPARγ antagonists. It exhibits competitive antagonism against rosiglitazone mediated activation of PPARγ ligand binding domain (PPARγLBD) in a transactivation assay in HEK293T cells with an IC50 of 4.3 µM against 1 µM rosiglitazone. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of the MTTB scaffold focusing on improving its physicochemical properties. Through this optimization, 34 new derivatives were prepared and characterized. Two new potent compounds (T-10075 and T-10106) with much improved drug-like properties and promising pharmacokinetic profile were identified.

Keywords: Competitive PPARγ antagonist; MTTB; PPARγ; PPARγ agonist; PPARγ antagonist; SAR; SPPARγMs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cinnamates / chemical synthesis
  • Cinnamates / pharmacokinetics
  • Cinnamates / pharmacology*
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Microsomes, Liver / metabolism
  • Molecular Structure
  • PPAR gamma / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Quinolines / chemical synthesis
  • Quinolines / pharmacokinetics
  • Quinolines / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rosiglitazone / pharmacology
  • Structure-Activity Relationship


  • 2-(5-((4-methoxy-2-(trifluoromethyl)quinolin-6-yl)methoxy)-2-((4-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)oxy)benzylidene)hexanoic acid
  • Cinnamates
  • PPAR gamma
  • Quinolines
  • Rosiglitazone