Objective: There is growing recognition that surgeons' non-technical skills are crucial in guaranteeing optimal quality and safety of patient care. However, insight in relevant attitudes underlying these behavioral skills is lacking. Hazardous attitudes potentially cause risky behavior, which can result in medical errors and adverse events. A questionnaire offering surgeons insight in their attitudinal profile is still missing and would be instrumental in risk reduction. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a prototype of a reliable and valid instrument to measure hazardous attitudes among surgeons.
Design: To measure hazardous attitudes, a prototype of the Surgical Hazardous Attitudes Reflection Profile (SHARP) tool was designed using a mixed methods approach, consisting of (1) 2 focus group discussions, (2) a modified Delphi analysis, and (3) a survey followed by (4) statistical analysis of the psychometric properties. Statistical analysis included exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, calculation of internal consistency reliability coefficients, and interscale correlations.
Setting: Fourteen hospitals across the Netherlands were recruited to guarantee demographic variety and the inclusion of academic, tertiary, and general hospitals.
Participants: Nineteen experts participated in the 2 focus groups, and 19 in the modified Delphi study. In total, 302 surgeons (54.1%) completed the SHARP.
Results: In total, 302 surgeons (54.1%) completed the SHARP. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in 6 subscales measuring attitude towards (1) authority (α = 0.78), (2) self-performance (α = 0.69), (3) performance feedback (α = 0.61), (4) own fitness to perform (α = 0.54), (5) uncertainty (α = 0.51), and (6) planned procedures (α = 0.48).
Conclusions: This study resulted in a prototype instrument identifying 6 potential hazardous attitudes in surgeons. Attitudes towards "authority" and "self-performance" can now be validly and reliably measured. Further research is required to optimize the prototype version of the instrument and could usefully explore the plausible relations between hazardous attitudes and clinical outcomes.
Keywords: Interpersonal and Communication Skills; Practice-Based Learning and Improvement; Professionalism; attitudes; human factors; mixed methods; quality improvement; questionnaire; surgeons.
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