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, 116 (1), 28-39

Periodontitis Is Associated With Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Periodontitis Is Associated With Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Eva Muñoz Aguilera et al. Cardiovasc Res.

Abstract

Recent evidence suggests a link between periodontitis (PD) and hypertension, but the nature of this association remains unclear. The overall aim of this review was to critically appraise the evidence linking these two common disorders. Systematic search was conducted for studies published up to December 2018. Prevalence of hypertension in patients with PD (moderate/severe groups) vs. those without PD (non-PD) was the primary outcome. Additional outcomes included adjusted mean difference in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure (BP) levels in PD vs. non-PD, assessment of biomarkers in PD and hypertension, and BP changes after periodontal therapy. From 81 studies selected, 40 were included in quantitative meta-analyses. Diagnoses of moderate-severe PD [odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.35] and severe PD (OR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.09-2.05) were associated with hypertension. Prospective studies confirmed PD diagnosis increased likelihood of hypertension occurrence (OR = 1.68; 95% CI: 0.85-3.35). Patients with PD exhibited higher mean SBP [weighted mean difference (WMD) of 4.49 mmHg; 95% CI: 2.88-6.11] and DBP (2.03 mmHg; 95% CI: 1.25-2.81) when compared with non-PD. Lastly, only 5 out of 12 interventional studies confirmed a reduction in BP following periodontal therapy, ranging from 3 to 12.5 mmHg of SBP and from 0 to 10 mmHg of DBP. PD is associated with increased odds of hypertension (SORT C) and higher SBP/DBP levels. The evidence suggesting that PD therapy could reduce BP is inconclusive. Although additional research is warranted on this association, these results suggest that oral health assessment and management of PD could not only improve oral/overall health and quality of life but also be of relevance in the management of patients with hypertension.

Keywords: Periodontal therapy; Blood pressure; Hypertension; Inflammation; Oral health; Periodontal diseases; Periodontitis.

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