Extracellular matrix hyaluronan is increased in skeletal muscle of high-fat-fed insulin-resistant mice, and reduction of hyaluronan by PEGPH20 hyaluronidase ameliorates diet-induced insulin resistance (IR). CD44, the main hyaluronan receptor, is positively correlated with type 2 diabetes. This study determines the role of CD44 in skeletal muscle IR. Global CD44-deficient (cd44-/-) mice and wild-type littermates (cd44+/+) were fed a chow diet or 60% high-fat diet for 16 wk. High-fat-fed cd44-/- mice were also treated with PEGPH20 to evaluate its CD44-dependent action. Insulin sensitivity was measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (ICv). High-fat feeding increased muscle CD44 protein expression. In the absence of differences in body weight and composition, despite lower clamp insulin during ICv, the cd44-/- mice had sustained glucose infusion rate (GIR) regardless of diet. High-fat diet-induced muscle IR as evidenced by decreased muscle glucose uptake (Rg) was exhibited in cd44+/+ mice but absent in cd44-/- mice. Moreover, gastrocnemius Rg remained unchanged between genotypes on chow diet but was increased in high-fat-fed cd44-/- compared with cd44+/+ when normalized to clamp insulin concentrations. Ameliorated muscle IR in high-fat-fed cd44-/- mice was associated with increased vascularization. In contrast to previously observed increases in wild-type mice, PEGPH20 treatment in high-fat-fed cd44-/- mice did not change GIR or muscle Rg during ICv, suggesting a CD44-dependent action. In conclusion, genetic CD44 deletion improves muscle IR, and the beneficial effects of PEGPH20 are CD44-dependent. These results suggest a critical role of CD44 in promoting hyaluronan-mediated muscle IR, therefore representing a potential therapeutic target for diabetes.
Keywords: extracellular matrix; hyaluronan; insulin resistance.