Application of T1-/T2-Weighted Ratio Mapping to Elucidate Intracortical Demyelination Process in the Alzheimer's Disease Continuum

Front Neurosci. 2019 Sep 10;13:904. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00904. eCollection 2019.

Abstract

Background The biological diagnosis criteria of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggests that previous work may misclassify the cognitive impairment caused by other factors into AD. Consequently, re-assessing the imaging profile of AD continuum is needed. Considering the high vulnerability of cortical association fibers, we aimed to elucidate the cortical demyelination process in the AD continuum biologically defined. Methods According to the biological diagnosis criteria, we determined the positive amyloid status (A+) as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid1 - 42 < 192 pg/ml, Florbetapir Positron emission tomography (PET) composite standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) >1.11. Also, the positive Tau status (T+) was determined as p-Tau181 > 23 pg/ml. Based on the cognitive characterization, we further categorized 252 subjects into 27 cognitively unimpaired with normal AD biomarkers (A-T-, controls), 49 preclinical AD (A+T+), 113 AD with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (A+T+), and 63 AD dementia (A+T+). We estimated the intracortical myelin content used the T1- and T2-weighted (T1W/T2W) ratio mapping. To investigate the sensitivity of the ratio mapping, we also utilized well-validated AD imaging biomarkers as the reference, including gray matter volume and Fludeoxyglucose PET (FDG-PET). Based on the general linear model, we conducted the voxel-wise two-sample T-tests between the controls and each group in the AD continuum. Results Compared to the controls, the results showed that the preclinical AD patients exhibited decreased T1W/T2W ratio value in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL); as the disease progresses, the prodromal AD patients demonstrated lower ratio value in bilateral IPL, with hippocampus (HP) atrophy. Lastly, the AD dementia patients exhibited decreased ratio value in bilateral IPL and hippocampus; also, we observed the bilateral temporal cortices atrophy and widespread decreased metabolism in the AD dementia patients. After corrected with gray volume, the results remained mostly unchanged. Conclusion Our study implied the decreased right IPL T1W/T2W ratio might represent early AD-related demyelination in disease continuum. Additionally, we demonstrated that the T1W/T2W ratio mapping is an easy-to-implement and sensitive metric to assess the intracortical myelin content in AD, particularly in the early stage.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease continuum; amyloid; inferior parietal lobule; intracortical myelin; preclinical Alzheimer’s disease.