Plasma Levels, Temporal Trends and Clinical Associations between Biomarkers of Inflammation and Vascular Homeostasis after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

Dev Neurosci. 2019;41(3-4):177-192. doi: 10.1159/000502276. Epub 2019 Sep 25.


Expression of inflammatory (interleukin-6 [IL-6]) and vascular homeostatic (angiopoietin-2 [AP-2], endothelin-1 [ET-1], endocan-2 [EC-2]) biomarkers in pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) was examined in this prospective, observational cohort study of 28 children hospitalized with mild, moderate, and severe TBI by clinical measures (age, sex, Glasgow Coma Scale score [GCS], Injury Severity Score [ISS], and cerebral autoregulation status). Biomarker patterns suggest an inverse relationship between GCS and AP-2, GCS and IL-6, ISS and ET-1, but a direct relationship between GCS and ET-1 and ISS and AP-2. Biomarker patterns suggest an inverse relationship between AP-2 and ET-1, AP-2 and EC-2, but a direct relationship between AP-2 and IL-6, IL-6 and EC-2, and IL-6 and ET-1. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory and vascular homeostatic biomarkers suggest a role for inflammation and disruption of vascular homeostasis during the first 10 days across the severity spectrum of pediatric TBI. Although not statistically significant, without impact on cerebral autoregulation, biomarker patterns suggest a relationship between inflammation and alterations in vascular homeostasis. The large variation in biomarker levels within TBI severity and age groups, and by sex suggests other contributory factors to biomarker expression.

Keywords: Angiopoietin-2; Children; Endocan-1; Endothelin-1; Endothelium; Interleukin-6; Traumatic brain injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Brain Injuries / blood
  • Brain Injuries / diagnosis
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / blood*
  • Brain Injuries, Traumatic / diagnosis
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Homeostasis / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Inflammation / blood*
  • Male
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies


  • Biomarkers