Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary science covering matters involving the nanoscale level that is being developed for a great variety of applications. Nanomedicine is one of these attractive and challenging uses focused on the employment of nanomaterials in medical applications such as drug delivery. However, handling these nanometric systems require defining specific parameters to establish the possible advantages and disadvantages in specific applications. This review presents the fundamental factors of nanoparticles and its microenvironment that must be considered to make an appropriate design for medical applications, mainly: (i) Interactions between nanoparticles and their biological environment, (ii) the interaction mechanisms, (iii) and the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles. On the other hand, the repercussions of the control, alter and modify these parameters in the biomedical applications. Additionally, we briefly report the implications of nanoparticles in nanomedicine and precision medicine, and provide perspectives in immunotherapy, which is opening novel applications as immune-oncology.
Keywords: biomolecules; interactions; nanomedicine; nanoparticles; protein corona.