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. 2019 Sep 24;24(19):3461.
doi: 10.3390/molecules24193461.

Simultaneous Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Angelica keiskei Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Free PMC article

Simultaneous Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction for Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Angelica keiskei Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

Lei Zhang et al. Molecules. .
Free PMC article


Angelica keiskei Koidzumi (A. keiskei), as a Japanese edible herbal plant, enjoys a variety of biological activities due to the presence of numerous active compounds, especially flavonoids. This study aims for the optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for flavonoids in A. keiskei and their antioxidant activity by using the response surface methodology (RSM). Single-factor experiments and a four-factor three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD) were performed to explore the effects of the following parameters on flavonoid extraction and antioxidant activity evaluation: ultrasonic temperature (X1), ultrasonic time (X2), ethanol concentration (X3) and liquid-solid ratio (X4). The optimum conditions of the combination of total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity (DPPH-RSC) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were as follows: X1 = 80 °C, X2 = 4 min, X3 = 78%, X4 = 35 mL/g, respectively. The experimental results provide a theoretical basis for the extensive utilization of A. keiskei and flavonoids extraction from A. keiskei as a potential source of antioxidants.

Keywords: Angelica keiskei; antioxidant activity; flavonoids; response surface methodology (RSM); ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE).

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Effects of ultrasonic temperature (A), ultrasonic time (B), ethanol concentration (C) and liquid–solid ratio (D) on total flavonoid content (TFC). Results were expressed as average values ± standard deviation (n = 3).
Figure 2
Figure 2
The interaction of extraction variables on TFC (A,B), DPPH-RSC (C) and FRAP (D).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Diagram of experimental ultrasonic-assisted extraction device.

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