Genetic Polymorphisms of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Genes (GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1), Gene-Gene Interaction with Association to Lung Cancer Risk in North India; A Case Control Study

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019 Sep 1;20(9):2707-2714. doi: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.9.2707.


Aim: In this case control study involving, 220 human subjects; polymorphisms in xenobiotic metabolizing genes (GST-M1, -T1 and -P1) and their association to lung cancer risk is being analysed among smokers and nonsmokers. GSTM1 or GSTT1 gene polymorphism and amino acid changes in GSTP1 have been correlated and may be associated to lung cancer risk. Other factor includes exposure to environmental pollutants and life style choices. We have explored gene-gene and gene-environment interaction in the aetiology of lung cancer risk among north Indian population. Patients and Methods: For the study we have collected 120 lung cancer patient blood samples from Kamala Nehru Memorial Cancer Hospital, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh and 100 matched controls. DNA was isolated and GST-M1 and - T1 genotyping were assessed by multiplex PCR whereas the GSTP1 polymorphism was analysed using restriction fragment length polymorphism. The risk of lung carcinogenesis was assessed using logistic regression analysis calculating the odd ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The risk of lung carcinogenesis was three fold higher for null GSTT1 (OR=3.045, 95%CI=1.750-5.301, p-value <0.001) genotype; whereas other two types; GSTM1 (OR= 1.342, 95% CI=0.788-2.284, p-value=0.270) and GSTP1 (OR=0.806, 95% CI=0.526-1.236, p-value=0.323) showed no association to lung cancer susceptibility respectively. Smokers diagnosed with lung cancer had more null genotypes for GSTT1 (OR=4.773, 95%CI=1.939-11.751, p<0.001). The ‘at risk’ genotype combination GSTM1 (null) /GSTT1 (null) (OR=1.76, 95%CI; 0.920-3.370, p-value=0.03) showed increased susceptibility to lung cancer risk. The genotype combination of GSTT1 (null)/GSTP1 (Ile/Ile) (p=0.009) was associated with increased lung cancer risk. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that; GSTT1 null genotype were more susceptible for lung cancer risk and smoking increases the susceptibility for lung cancer several folds among the North Indian population. Gene-gene interaction for null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 were correlated with higher risk of having lung cancer.

Keywords: GSTM1; GSTP1; GSTT1; Lung cancer; Polymorphism.

MeSH terms

  • Adenocarcinoma / genetics
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Epistasis, Genetic*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • Glutathione S-Transferase pi / genetics*
  • Glutathione Transferase / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / genetics*
  • Small Cell Lung Carcinoma / pathology
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • glutathione S-transferase T1
  • GSTP1 protein, human
  • Glutathione S-Transferase pi
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • glutathione S-transferase M1