Objectives: This study was conducted to determine long-term survival rates and the factors associated with mortality in Turkish primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) patients.
Methods: All patients diagnosed with pSS between 2004 and 2014 were included in this study. By January 2019, all subjects still living by the end of the study, as well as any death, were identified. Survival rates and standard mortality rates (SMRs) using general population mortality data were calculated. Mortality-related factors were determined by univariate and multivariate analysis.
Results: During follow-up, 33 cases of 372 pSS patients resulted in death (8.9%). Of those patients, they were typically older at disease onset, at recruitment, and had shorter follow-up times (p < 0.001 for all). The overall SMR of all pSS patients compared with the general population was 2.11 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.83). Male pSS patients had a higher SMR than that of general male patients. Overall survival rates were 97.8% at five years, 90.2% at 10 years, and 87.1% at 15 years in patients with pSS. The survival rate of pSS patients was significantly lower than the general Turkish population (p = 0.011). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that older age at disease onset and the presence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) were independent risk factors for mortality.
Conclusions: Based on these data, mortality rates of Turkish pSS patients are higher compared with the general population. Survival significantly decreased in the pSS patients with ILD, especially in older male patients at disease onset. Male gender and malignancy may also be associated with a worse prognosis in pSS patients.Key Point• Mortality in Sjögren's syndrome.
Keywords: Mortality; Prognosis; Sjögren’s syndrome; Standard mortality rates; Survival.