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. 2019 Sep 25;20(19):4758.
doi: 10.3390/ijms20194758.

Epigenetic Alterations of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) in Cancer

Free PMC article

Epigenetic Alterations of Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) in Cancer

Hyun Seung Ban et al. Int J Mol Sci. .
Free PMC article


Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are associated with various physiological processes (protein refolding and degradation) involved in the responses to cellular stress, such as cytotoxic agents, high temperature, and hypoxia. HSPs are overexpressed in cancer cells and play roles in their apoptosis, invasion, proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The regulation or translational modification of HSPs is recognized as a therapeutic target for the development of anticancer drugs. Among the regulatory processes associated with HSP expression, the epigenetic machinery (miRNAs, histone modification, and DNA methylation) has key functions in cancer. Moreover, various epigenetic modifiers of HSP expression have also been reported as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers of cancer. Thus, in this review, we describe the epigenetic alterations of HSP expression in cancer cells and suggest that HSPs be clinically applied as diagnostic and therapeutic markers in cancer therapy via controlled epigenetic modifiers.

Keywords: DNA methylation; HSPs; cancer; epigenetics; histone methylation; miRNA.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Summary for epigenetic regulations and inhibitors of HSPs in cancer. HSP27 inhibitor RP101 [87]; HSP40 inhibitor KNK437 [88]; HSP60 inhibitors mizoribine [89], epolactaene [90], ETB [90], and EC3016 [91]; HSP70 inhibitors VER-15508 [92], epigallocatechin [93], PES [94], and MKT-077 [95]; HSP90 inhibitors geldanamycin [96], 17-AAG [97], NYP-AUY922 [98], AT13387 [99], AUY922 [100], STA-9090 [101], and BIIB021 [102].

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