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Review
. 2019 Jun;46(3):271-283.
doi: 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2019.08.004. Epub 2019 Sep 11.

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Harboring Uncommon EGFR Mutations: Focus on Afatinib

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Review

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Harboring Uncommon EGFR Mutations: Focus on Afatinib

Ashiq Masood et al. Semin Oncol. .
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Abstract

The development of first-, second-, and third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has revolutionized the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring mutations in the EGFR. However, limited data are available regarding the activity of available EGFR TKIs against uncommon EGFR mutations. This is an important question because improvements in screening techniques are facilitating the identification of patients with uncommon mutations for whom optimal treatment has not yet been clarified. This uncertainty reflects the fact that most prospective clinical trials of EGFR TKIs have been restricted to patients with tumor harboring common (Del19 or L858R) mutations. In this article, we discuss the nature of EGFR mutation heterogeneity in NSCLC and review recent preclinical and clinical data that have assessed the sensitivity of different mutations to different EGFR TKIs. Recent preclinical data indicate that second-generation ErbB family blockers, such as afatinib, have a broad activity profile across uncommon EGFR mutations. Emerging evidence indicates that the preclinical data for afatinib are reflected in the clinic. Subanalysis of clinical trials, and real-world data, demonstrate that EGFRs with defined, but uncommon mutations such as G719X, S768I, and L861Q are sensitive to afatinib, which is now approved for tumors harboring these mutations. A recent clinical trial has demonstrated that EGFRs harboring some of these less common mutations also appear to be sensitive to the third-generation EGFR TKI, osimertinib. Treatment options for tumors with other uncommon mutations, notably exon 20 insertion, remain an area of unmet need, although osimertinib has shown preclinical activity in this setting, and early clinical activity has been seen with the dual EGFR/HER2 TKIs, poziotinib and TAK-788. Further data are required to help drive appropriate treatment decisions in patients whose tumors harbor these uncommon EGFR mutations. To see an abstract video summarising the content of the paper, please visit http://usscicomms.com/oncology/masood/seminars-in-oncology/.

Keywords: Afatinib; Epidermal growth factor receptor; Uncommon mutations; non-small cell lung cancer.

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