As a widely used cancer drug, carboplatin often results in serious side effects, such as gut toxicity. In this study, we examined the effects of gut microbiota on mice with carboplatin-induced intestinal mucosal damage. Carboplatin resulted in intestinal mucositis, as indicated by weight loss, diarrhoea, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. It markedly increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines/chemokines in intestine. Carboplatin also altered the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota. A significantly higher abundance of Prevotella copri (P. copri) was observed in carboplatin-treated mice. Moreover, the content of P. copri was positively correlated with the severity of intestinal mucositis. Pretreatment with metronidazole reduced the content of P. copri and relieved the intestinal mucosal injury and inflammation that was induced by carboplatin. Further study revealed that supplementation with P. copri in carboplatin-treated mice resulted in more severe tissue damage, lower tight junction protein expression and higher cytokine expression, and it enhanced both local and systemic immune responses. These data demonstrated that P. copri was involved in the pathological process of carboplatin-induced intestinal mucositis, suggesting a potential attenuation of carboplatin-induced intestinal mucositis by targeting P. copri.