Importance: Exposure to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) has been reported to be associated with certain neuropsychiatric disorders.
Objective: To establish the association between seropositivity to Bb and incidental neuropsychiatric disorders (eg, cognitive decline, incident dementia, and depressive symptoms) as well as functional decline.
Design, setting, and participants: This prospective, 6-year follow-up cohort study was conducted in a rural southwestern region of France and included 689 retired farmers 65 years or older randomly recruited from the Farmer Health Insurance System who agreed to submit a blood sample and were participants in the Aging Multidisciplinary Investigation study, an ongoing epidemiological prospective study of aging initiated in 2007. The data were analyzed from April to May 2019.
Exposures: Borrelia burgdorferi serology testing was performed in a 2-tiered approach. During the follow-up period, cognitive decline, incident dementia, depressive symptoms, and functional decline were repeatedly assessed.
Main outcomes and measures: Diagnosis of dementia relied on a 3-step procedure; cognitive decline was determined using the Mini-Mental State Examination and depressive symptomatology was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale. For disability, scores on instrumental and basic activities of daily living were investigated.
Results: Of 689 participants, 432 (62.2%) were men and the mean (SD) age was 75.8 (6.4) years. The seroprevalence rate of Bb was 6.5%. At baseline, compared with Bb- participants, those who were Bb+ were older, predominantly men, and had lower depressive symptoms. No association between seropositivity and any of the studied outcomes (ie, cognitive decline, depressive symptoms, or functional decline) was found in the crude analysis and after adjusting for confounding variables. Regarding incident dementia, no increased risk was found among Bb+ participants (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.1-1.17; adjusted for diverse confounders).
Conclusions and relevance: To our knowledge, this is one of the few longitudinal studies exploring the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders and functional decline associated with exposure to Bb. Despite its limitations (eg, a lack of information if clinical manifestations of Lyme borreliosis existed, date of exposure, or treatment received), this study suggests that seropositivity to Bb is not a risk factor for incidental neuropsychiatric disorders and functional decline.