Refinements in vascular surgery have made repair of arterial injuries common throughout the world. There seems to be little doubt among trauma surgeons that primary repair of arterial injuries is the method of choice, as long as there is little devitalized arterial tissue and the procedure can be accomplished without tension on the suture lines or stenosis at the repair. When a lateral repair or primary anastomosis is not feasible, the type of conduit to be used is still the subject of controversy. Most clinical reports within the past 30 years state that autogenous vein is the grafting material of choice in traumatic wounds. However, the most recent investigations of the data do not favor autogenous vein grafts and, in fact, may lean toward prosthetic materials as the most satisfactory conduits for repairing traumatized arteries.