Risk of Myocardial Infarction Among New Users of Calcium Supplements Alone or Combined With Vitamin D: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Feb;107(2):359-368. doi: 10.1002/cpt.1636. Epub 2019 Nov 6.


A population-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate the risk of acute myocardial infarction among new users of calcium supplements either in monotherapy (CaM) or in combination with vitamin D (CaD). A total of 23,025 cases and 114,851 controls randomly sampled from the underlying cohort and matched with cases by age, sex, and index date were included. New users of CaM and CaD were categorized as current users, recent users, past users, and nonusers. We computed adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among current users as compared with nonusers through a conditional logistic regression. No increased risk was associated with CaM overall (59 cases (0.26%) and 273 controls (0.24%); AOR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.59-1.09), nor was it found in any of the conditions examined. Instead, the use of CaD was associated with a decreased risk (275 cases (1.19%) and 1,160 controls (1.45%); AOR = 0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.90), dose and duration-dependent, and particularly evident in patients with a high cardiovascular risk (AOR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.43-0.81).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Calcium / administration & dosage*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Dietary Supplements / statistics & numerical data*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / epidemiology*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*


  • Vitamin D
  • Calcium