Transgender men, pregnancy, and the "new" advanced paternal age: A review of the literature

Maturitas. 2019 Oct;128:17-21. doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2019.07.004. Epub 2019 Jul 8.


Transgender men are assigned female at birth, but self-identify as male. Although some transgender men undergo gender-affirming hormonal treatment and/or surgery that preclude pregnancy, many (if not most) retain their female reproductive organs and, as a result, their capacity to become pregnant. Although the visibility of the transgender community has increased, the exposure of healthcare providers to transgender individuals, especially transgender men during pregnancy, as well as research that addresses evidence-based practice remain limited. In this review, we discuss obstetrical issues for transgender men who are ≥35 years old, termed the "new" advanced paternal age. We review preconception care and focus on fertility issues, the impact of stopping gender-affirming hormonal treatment, and age-appropriate health maintenance. We review antepartum and postpartum care, including labor and delivery, monitoring for perinatal depression, contraception, and chest feeding. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for areas for further research and study.

Keywords: Advanced maternal age; Advanced paternal age; Pregnancy; Transgender men.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Breast Feeding
  • Female
  • Gender Identity*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Obstetrics*
  • Paternal Age*
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy, High-Risk
  • Transgender Persons*
  • Young Adult