The Put It Out Project (POP) Facebook Intervention for Young Sexual and Gender Minority Smokers: Outcomes of a Pilot, Randomized, Controlled Trial

Nicotine Tob Res. 2020 Aug 24;22(9):1614-1621. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntz184.


Introduction: This trial investigated whether a Facebook smoking cessation intervention culturally tailored to young sexual and gender minority (SGM) smokers (versus non-tailored) would increase smoking abstinence.

Methods: Participants were 165 SGM young adult US smokers (age 18-25) recruited from Facebook in April 2018 and randomized to an SGM-tailored (POP; N = 84) or non-tailored (TSP-SGM; N = 81) intervention. Interventions delivered weekly live counseling sessions and 90 daily Facebook posts to participants in Facebook groups. Primary analyses compared POP and TSP-SGM on biochemically verified smoking abstinence (yes/no; primary outcome), self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (yes/no), reduction in cigarettes per week by 50+% from baseline (yes/no), making a quit attempt during treatment (yes/no), and stage of change (precontemplation/contemplation vs. preparation/action). Supplemental analyses compared POP to two historical control groups.

Results: POP participants were more likely than TSP-SGM participants to report smoking abstinence at 3 (23.8% vs. 12.3%; OR = 2.50; p = .03) and 6 months (34.5% vs. 12.3%; OR = 4.06; p < .001) and reduction in smoking at 3 months (52.4% vs. 39.5%; OR = 2.11; p = .03). Biochemically verified smoking abstinence did not significantly differ between POP and TSP-SGM at 3 (OR = 2.00; p = .33) or 6 months (OR = 3.12; p = .08), potentially due to challenges with remote biochemical verification. In supplemental analyses, POP participants were more likely to report abstinence at 3 (OR = 6.82, p = .01) and 6 (OR = 2.75, p = .03) months and reduced smoking at 3 months (OR = 2.72, p = .01) than participants who received a referral to

Conclusions: This pilot study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of a Facebook smoking cessation intervention tailored to SGM young adults.

Implications: SGM individuals have disproportionately high smoking prevalence. It is unclear whether smoking cessation interventions culturally tailored to the SGM community are more effective than non-tailored interventions. This pilot trial found preliminary evidence that an SGM-tailored Facebook smoking cessation intervention increased reported abstinence from smoking, compared to a non-tailored intervention.

Trial registration: NCT03259360.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • California / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Internet-Based Intervention / statistics & numerical data*
  • Male
  • Pilot Projects
  • Prognosis
  • Sexual and Gender Minorities / psychology*
  • Smokers / psychology*
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Smoking / therapy*
  • Smoking Cessation / methods*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology*
  • Social Media / statistics & numerical data*
  • Young Adult

Associated data