Background: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a serious complication of pregnancy associated with variable degrees of left ventricular (LV) recovery. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that global LV strain at presentation has prognostic value in patients with PPCM.
Methods: One hundred patients with PPCM aged 30 ± 6 years were enrolled in the multicenter Investigation in Pregnancy Associated Cardiomyopathy study along with 21 normal female control subjects. Speckle-tracking global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) analysis was performed. The predefined primary combined outcome variable was death, transplantation, LV assist device implantation, or evidence of persistent LV dysfunction (LV ejection fraction [LVEF] < 50%) at 1 year.
Results: GLS measurement was feasible in 110 subjects: 89 of 90 patients with PPCM (99%) with echocardiographic data and all 21 control subjects. Of 84 patients (94%) with 1-year follow-up, 21 (25%) had unfavorable primary outcomes: four LV assist device placements, two deaths, and 15 patients with persistent LV dysfunction. GLS at presentation with a cutoff of 10.6% (absolute value) was specifically associated with the subsequent primary outcome with 75% sensitivity and 95% specificity. GCS at presentation with a cutoff of 10.1% was associated with the primary outcome with 78% sensitivity and 84% specificity. GLS and GCS remained significantly associated with outcomes after adjusting for LVEF (GLS odds ratio, 2.07; P < .001; GCS odds ratio, 1.37; P = .005). GLS was significantly additive to LVEF (C statistic = 0.76-0.91, net reclassification improvement = 1.32, P < .001).
Conclusions: GLS and GCS in patients with PPCM at presentation were associated with subsequent clinical outcomes, including death, LV assist device implantation, and evidence of persistent LV dysfunction. Strain measures may add prognostic information over LVEF for risk stratification.
Keywords: Cardiomyopathy; Heart failure; Pregnancy; Strain imaging.
Copyright © 2019 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.