Objectives: To determine whether mortality differs between roller and centrifugal pumps used during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in infants weighing less than 10 kg.
Design: Retrospective propensity-matched cohort study.
Setting: All extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers reporting to the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization.
Patients: All patients less than 10 kg supported on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during 2011-2016 within Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry.
Interventions: Centrifugal and roller pump recipients were propensity matched (1:1) based on predicted probability of receiving a centrifugal pump using demographic variables, indication for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, central versus peripheral cannulation, and pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patient management.
Measurements and main results: A total of 12,890 patients less than 10 kg were supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry during 2011-2016. Patients were propensity matched into a cohort of 8,366. Venoarterial and venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs were propensity matched separately. The propensity-matched cohorts were similar except earlier year of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (standardized mean difference, 0.49) in the roller pump group. Within the propensity-matched cohort, survival to discharge was lower in the centrifugal pump group (57% vs 59%; odds ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-0.99; p = 0.04). Hemolytic, infectious, limb injury, mechanical, metabolic, neurologic, pulmonary, and renal complications were more frequent in the centrifugal pump group. Hemorrhagic complications were similar between groups. Hemolysis mediated the relationship between centrifugal pumps and mortality (indirect effect, 0.023; p < 0.001).
Conclusions: In this propensity score-matched cohort study of 8,366 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation recipients weighing less than 10 kg, those supported with centrifugal pumps had increased mortality and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications. Hemolysis was evaluated as a potential mediator of the relationship between centrifugal pump use and mortality and met criteria for full mediation.