Myrciaria dubia is a native plant from the Amazon region which produces red-purplish fruit rich in antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, and phenolic. M. dubia fruit is used to prepare juices considered to possess high nutritional content providing health benefits. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of M. dubia juice to protect DNA against genomic instability induced by sub-acute ethanol consumption attributed to oxidative stress. Mice were treated for 28 days with juice at 25% and 50% diluted in distilled water or with the diluted combination juice plus ethanol (5 g/kg). The genotoxic/antigenotoxic and mutagenic/antimutagenic effects were assessed using comet assay in blood, liver, and kidney and micronucleus (MN) test with bone marrow. In addition, the mutagenicity was also evaluated using Salmonella/microsome assay. Phytochemical compounds were determined using HPLC/PDA/MS/MS. The juice did not induce genotoxic effects in blood, kidney, and liver cells at both doses. In combination with ethanol, the juice reduced the alcohol-mediated DNA damage in all tissues analyzed. Further, the juice did not produce mutagenic effects and decreased mutagenicity induced by ethanol in the bone marrow. The anthocyanins were major compounds detected by HPLC/PDA/MS/MS, which modulated genotoxic and mutagenic effects initiated by ethanol and at least in part appeared responsible for the observed antigenotoxic and antimutagenic effects of M. dubia juice.
Keywords: Ames test; Myrtaceae; comet assay; micronucleus test; mutagenicity; toxicity.