Aims: Histamine H3 receptor (H3R) antagonists/inverse agonists increase vigilance. We studied brain histaminergic pathways under hyperammonemia and the transcriptome of receptors and their signaling cascades to provide a rationale for wake-promoting therapies.
Methods: We analyzed histamine-induced long-lasting depression of corticostriatal synaptic transmission (LLDhist). As the expression of dopamine 1 receptors (D1R) is upregulated in LGS-KO striatum where D1R-H3R dimers may exist, we investigated actions of H3R and D1R agonists and antagonists. We analyzed transcription of selected genes in cortex and dorsal striatum in a mouse model of inborn hyperammonemia (liver-specific glutamine synthetase knockout: LGS-KO) and compared it with human hepatic encephalopathy.
Results: LGS-KO mice showed significant reduction of the direct depression (DD) but not the long-lasting depression (LLD) by histamine. Neither pharmacological activation nor inhibition of D1R significantly affected DDhist and LLDhist in WT striatum, while in LGS-KO mice D1R activation suppressed LLDhist. Histaminergic signaling was found unchanged at the transcriptional level except for the H2R. A study of cAMP-regulated genes indicated a significant reduction in the molecular signature of wakefulness in the diseased cortex.
Conclusions: Our findings provide a rationale for the development of aminergic wake-promoting therapeutics in hyperammonemic disorders.
Keywords: histamine; hyperammonemia; striatum; synaptic plasticity.
© 2019 The Authors. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.